RECENT BLOG POST
04 Aug 2021
10 Aug 2021
10 Aug 2021
By Dr. Aastha Chandra
29 May 2023
GENETIC DENTAL DISORDERS
Genetic/ mouth dental abnormalities (anomalies) are problems, dysfunctions and diseases of oral tissues and dentition caused by defective genes. Many genetic dental/ oral abnormalities indicate more complex disorders and are linked to inherited traits and defects, or result from spontaneous genetic mutations. The following are some of the dental disorders that are genetic:
1. MISSING TEETH/ ANODONTIA:
Anodontia is a congenital defect causing missing teeth. Children born with this defect usually get their baby teeth but have one or more missing primary teeth. This disorder can cause spacing errors due to third molars, upper lateral incisors and lower second premolars that fail to develop.
Known as bad bite, this disorder causes crowding due to the incorrect number of teeth and misalignment of the jaw. Surgical and nonsurgical interventions can restore function and reduce pain.
3. GUM DISEASE:
Gum disease refers to bacterial infection and inflammation causing damage to soft and hard tissues supporting the teeth. In its early stages (gingivitis), gums become red, swollen and bleed easily, but the disease is reversible. In advanced stages of periodontal disease (periodontitis), gums and bone
supporting the teeth become seriously damaged, resulting in loose teeth that may fall out or need removal by a dentist. Although primarily an infectious disease caused by poor oral hygiene, gum disease is influenced by heredity. An association between gum disease and several systemic
conditions such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes and preterm babies has also been suggested.
4. SUPERNUMERARY TEETH/ EXTRA TEETH:
Some people have extra permanent teeth that may not emerge. Those that do emerge can appear anywhere in your mouth. They often have a cone-shaped crown with a short root.
5. DEFECTIVE TOOTH ENAMEL/ AMELOGENESIS IMPERFECTA:
Amelogenesis imperfecta involves defective tooth enamel, which is the hard substance protecting the tooth crown. This leaves teeth sensitive to temperature and prone to wear.
6. CANKER SORES:
Canker sores are white or gray ulcers with a red border inside your mouth. They are caused by immune system deficiencies and bacterial infections. Hereditary predisposition may also play a role in the frequency and probability of getting them.
7. CLEFT LIP AND CLEFT PALATE:
The most common craniofacial deformity is clefting of the lip and palate. Clefting, the incomplete fusion of the lip and/or palate, can appear alone or as part of a hereditary syndrome. Family history of clefting increases the chances of inheriting the disorder.
7. GINGIVAL FIBROMATOSIS:
A hereditary condition causing an overgrowth of the gum tissue, gingival fibromatosis is characterized by enlarged gum tissue and is associated with an overproduction of collagen.
8. ORAL CANCER:
Often starting as a tiny, inconsequential white or red spot or sore anywhere in the mouth, most oral cancers often occur in people who use tobacco and alcohol and are most likely to strike after age 40.
However, genetic factors also play a role. These include hereditary predisposition, oncogenes (genes that change growth patterns) and mutations in tumor suppressor genes. Someone with a hereditary
predisposition for cancer has a greater chance of developing cancer due to inherited genes, which make body cells more sensitive to cancer-contributing factors such as tobacco, alcohol and sunlight.
If you suspect that your dental/oral problems are caused by a genetic abnormality, visit your dentist as soon as possible to discuss your symptoms and undergo an examination. Your dentist will likely review your complete medical history and perform a thorough oral examination in order to help
identify the cause of your dental/mouth problems and provide appropriate treatment and referral.